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Joni Varner

Cinema 1 Study Guide for Exam #1 - 2019 Book

 

Cinema 1 Terms to Study for Test #1 

Page numbers are from: “The Filmmakers Handbook 2019 Edition.” You will need to bring a Scantron (#882) form to class (available in the LACC bookstore & the ASG) and a #2 pencil. This is NOT an open book test, but you can use an English/foreign language dictionary.

 

Chapter 1: Telling A Story on Film pp. 58-77

· Single Camera [lecture only]:

-  Edited after the shoot

-  Movies/TV Drama/Commercials

· Multi-camera (2+ cameras) [lecture only]:

-  Edited live OR after the shoot

-  Talk/Game/Magazine/Sports/SitCom.

· SD (Standard Definition) pp 86-87:

-  DV; NTSC; One resolution: 720X480

-  Aspect ratio: 4:3;  30 frames per second

-  PAL (Europe + Asia TV: analog)

· HD (High Definition) or Digital TV pp 86-87:

-  HDTV or ATSC (USA transition 6/12/09)

-  18 format variations: Aspect ratio: 16:9

-  Resolutions:1920x1080, 1280x720

-  Lines: 1080 (HD) or 720 (HD) or 480 (SD)

-  Interlace (i) & Progressive Scan (p) (pp. 91-93)

-  24 (23.98), 30 (29.97), or 60 (59.94) frames/second

· UHDTV  - 4K pp 86-87

· Video pp 3-4

-  Magnetic/Multi-record/Instant Playback

-  Nonlinear Editing

-  Telecine (film TO video) / Scan (video TO film)

· Film pp 3-4

-  Super-8, 16mm & S-16mm, 35 & 65mm, IMAX

-  Chemical/ Processing Delay/ Single-record

-  Contrast Ratio (40:1 older video 1000:1 Film)

-  Resolution 4000x3000

-  Analog/physical editing

-  Shoot in Film / Edit in Video

-  Some feature films, 1-hour TV dramas

· Filmmaking 5 stages (p. 4-7):

-  Development/Pre/Production/Post/Distribution

· Aspect Ratio (pp. 10, 129-36)

-  The width of the frame divided by the height

-  1.33:1 - Non-widescreen: SDTV, (Academy Aperture)

-  1.66:1 - (5:3) Super 16mm- European Features

-  1.78:1 - (16:9) HD TVs & cameras (ATSC)

-  1.85:1 - U.S. movie features: wide-screen

-  2.35:1 - “Scope” - Anamorphic (cinemascope)

-  Anamorphic lenses (pp 224-8) squeezed cam/unsqueezed in post

-  Conversion (pp 134-6) :

-  Widescreen (16:9) to Non-widescreen (4:3):

-  Letterbox/EdgeCrop/Horizontal Squeeze

-  Conversion: Non-widescreen (4:3) to Widescreen (16:9):

-  Sidebar/Blow Up/Horizontal Stretch

· Importance of Sound (pp. 20-1)

-  ADR(Automatic Dialog Replacement) (p. 21)

-  Foley (synchronous sound effects) (p. 752-3)

-  SFX (Sound Effects) and WILD sound (p. 752)

-  Single System Recording (recording sound in the camera with picture) (p. 102)

-  Double System Recording (recording sound separately from the camera) (p. 102)

-  SLATE (p. 435-7)

 Chapter 2: Developing The Project pp. 58-77

· How to start production/Who is audience?

· How much will it cost? (how to pay)

· Work Backwards from the Budget

· Work Backwards from the Distribution: Length

· Acquisition/Capture (p. 78)

-  Video:cost benefits / Film: “look & feel”

-  Postproduction (How to edit?)

-  Distribution: Theatre/TV/OTT/Mobile/3D

Chapter 3: Intro to Digital Systems pp. 78-146

· Comparing Video Formats (pp. 86-93,100, 167)

· Analog (VHS)

· Digital Standard Definition (Mini-DV)

· Digital High Definition (p 100):

-  AVCHD-H.264 (Advanced Video Coding)

-  HEVC-H.254 (High Efficiency Video Coding)

-  Codec (compression) (5:1, 40:1, etc.)

-  Mbps (Megabits per second)

· Digital Cinematography:

-  Arri Alexa™, Red™, Canon C series, Panasonic, Sony F series, Black Magic™, Panavision Millennium™

· Camera Sensor Size (pp. 108-11)

· Video Sensor: light sensitive computer chip (pp. 108-111, 190)

-  CCD (Charge Coupled Device) (p. 79)

-  CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor - most common) (p. 79)

-  Pixels (picture elements) (p. 79-80)

· Choosing a Camera (pp. 107-16)

-  DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex)

-  Video camera / Smart Phone

· Recording Media (pp. 97-101)

-  Hard Drives (HDD or SSD)

-  Flash Memory Cards (SDHC: school cameras)

· Digital Connections (pp. 93-4, 348-50)

· Composite or Component (HDMI) (RGB)

-  Data Connectors (USB, Thunderbolt, SDI)

Chapter 4: The Video Camcorder  pp.147-95

· Camera Overview (pp 147-148)

· Viewfinder Zebra = Exposure Indicator (p. 151-154)

· Camera Power (pp. 184-8)

-  AC Power Supply (power & charge battery)

-  Battery: (Li Ion (travel restrictions)

· Format/ Frame Rate (pp. 149)

-  1080 or 720: usually set by the camera

-  24 or 30 fps; progressive or interlace

-  Speed: ISO or Gain setting

· Exposure (AE Shift) (pp. 155-7)

-  Backlight

· Focus (auto vs. manual) (pp. 162-3)

· White Balance (auto vs. manual) (pp. 158-66)

-  Electronic compensation/different color light

-  Preset for indoor light (3200° K)

· Image Stabilization (p. 195)

· Low Light (Infrared) (p. 179)

-  In-Camera Effects (NO do in post w/exceptions)

· SMPTE Time Code (p. 331-332) (hours:minutes:seconds:frames)

· Recording Media (Chips) (pp. 163-6)

-  Formatted, Backup 2 places, Copy all files

-  MTS files (editing or conversion software)

Chapter 5: The Lens (pp. 196-245)

· Lens has two jobs (pp. 196):

-  Focus, Gather & Bend light rays

-  Control amount of light into camera (ƒ-stop)

-  Elements (several pieces of glass) Barrel

-  Flare (antireflective coatings)

· Focal Length in millimeters (pp. 198-202)

-  Measures the power of a lens to bend light

-  Short (wide), Medium (normal), Long (telephoto)

· Prime Lenses: only one focal length (mm)

· Zoom Lenses: variable focal length

-  Optical Zoom Range (HF-R300: 2.8–89.6mm)

· Focusing a zoom (at longest focal length)

· Focal Plane (surface of film or sensor)

· Focal Length/Perspective (pp. 196-202):

-  Dolly - get closer to the object

-  Zoom - change focal length

-  Zoom vs. Dolly (Perspective) (p. 199)

· Sensor Magnification/Crop Factor (pp. 202-7)

-  Camera sensor size affects view of view

· Depth of Field (pp. 213-8)

-  To minimize depth of field (p. 216-7):

-  Open up iris/longer focal length/move closer (blur is call bokeh)

-  To maximize depth of field (p. 215):

-  Close down iris/shorter focal length/move farther away

· Speed (pp. 207-9) Light gathering power

-  The faster a lens = more light let through

-  The slower a lens = less light let through

-  ƒ-Number is the ratio between the focal length of the lens and its diameter

-  ƒ-stop (white markings) - the light gathering power of the lens at any opening

-  t-stop (used in cinema-red markings) accounts for light loss & is a higher number

-  Standard ƒ-stop series; Numbers get smaller = “hole” gets bigger (p. 208)

-  1.4,  2,  2.8,  4,  5.6,  8,  11,  16,  22,  32

-  Each stop equals halving or doubling of light

-  Higher numbers = less light; “stopping down”

-  Lower numbers = more light; “opening up”

· Setting the Focus (p. 209-13)

-  Tape Measure Focus - measure from focal plane (p. 21-3)

-  Pulling focus: changing focus during a take, usually done by First Assistant Camera

-  Video/DSLR cameras focused “by eye” & tape

· Hyperfocal Distance (focus to infinity) (p. 218)

· Prime Lenses for Special Uses (pp. 221-9)

· Fast (low light); Telephoto (NFL Films™)

· Macro Lenses (focus very close)

· Close-Up / Split Field Diopters (pp. 223-4)

· Tilt/Shift Lenses (p 229)

· Lens Quality (Aberrations) (pp. 228-32)

-  Vignetting, Chromatic, Sharpness, Flare

· Lens Seating Problems (pp. 236-7):

-  Depth of Focus/Back Focus

· Lens Care (wet or brush - no dry) (pp. 238-9)

Chapter 8: The Film Image (pp.384-421)
From Chapter 7 (Film Systems)  (pp. 356-67)

· Intermittent Movement (camera or projector)

· Shutter/Claw/Aperture/Frame (p. 356-7)

· Camera Capture Speed (pp. 482-8)

-  Slow Motion (Over-cranking) more than 24 fps

-  Fast Motion (Under-cranking) less than 24 fps

· Intervalometer (Time-Lapse) = camera “clock”

· High-Speed Cameras (Special Slow Motion)

· Blurring (Wide Shutter) (p 138)Baraka”

· Strobing (Narrow Shutter) “Drumline”

· Film Formats; (width+size+shape) (pp. 358-62)

· Larger format = better quality (resolution)

-  35mm (1890s) = current theatrical films

-  4-perf & 3-perf (holes per frame)

-  16mm (1920s) & 8mm (1930s)

· Film Stock (pp. 384-393)

-  Negative (not positive) /Reversal (positive)

-  Speed: Sensitivity to light (fast or slow)

-  Film, Sensor, Shutter, Lens

· Editing Film On Video (p. 364-5)

-  NLE (computer editor), Dailies or Rushes

-  Video Out (for Digital Media)

-  (DI) Digital Intermediate

· Raw Stock: unexposed film/ “look” (pp. 394-9)

-  Emulsion and Base

· Negative / Reversal (can be projected)

-  Tungsten (indoors) or Daylight (outdoors) balanced (pp 389-393)

-  Chemical Changes: Optional (pp. 391-3)

-  Push = brightens

-  Pull = darkens

-  Flashing = reduces contrast

-  Skip bleach (p. 393)

· Contrast (pp. 391-3)

-  Separation of light and dark tones

· Characteristic Curve (p. 386-8)

-  Gamma (steepness of straight line section)

· Film Speed (sensitivity to light) (pp. 388-9)

-  EI (Exposure Index) (motion picture film)

-  ASA (American Standard)

-  ISO: ASA first, then DIN (i.e., EI 500/28°)

· Graininess: visible particles of chemicals/dyes (p. 393-4)

-  Faster film = larger, more visible grain

· Kodak stocks (pp. 395-9)

-  72_ _ for 16mm; (52_ _ for 35mm)

· Latent Edge Numbers (after processing) (p. 397)

· Refrigerate Film Stock, Avoid X-Rays

· Exposure (p. 399-400)

-  Overexpose (too light)

-  Underexpose (too dark)

-  Important Elements with sufficient detail

-  HDR (High Dynamic Range) (p. 124-127)

· Light Meters (pp. 400-10)

-  Direct (digital); Indirect (analog)

-  Incident Light

-  hold near subject - point to camera

-  Flat Disk Diffuser (individual lights)

-  Reflectance calibrated with 18% Gray Card

-  Spot Meter (1°)

· Time or duration of the exposure (p 402):

-  1/48 second (1/50) = 1/24 x 1/2

-  1/60 second for U.S. video

· EXPOSURE = INTENSITY (f-Stop)  X  TIME

-  Exposure = amount of light to each frame

-  Film speed (ISO/ASA) set to speed on film box

-  DV speed: 325-500 ISO (depends on sensor)

-  Filter Factor: for light loss w/ filter (p. 390)

-  t-stops DO account for lost light (p 403)

-  footcandles = non metric light measure

· Four Ways to Control Exposure (p. 411-2):

-  1) Film Speed (ISO)

-  2) Lens (ƒ-Stops)

-  3) Shutter Speed

-  4) Ambient Light

· Exposure Range (pp. 410-412)

-  Special: Night, Landscapes,Sunrise/set

-  What is bright/dark/good detail?

-  Negative film: 10-13 ƒ/stops

-  Reversal film & SD video: 6 ƒ/stops

-  High End Digital Video: 14-16 ƒ/stops

Color & Filters:

· Additive Primaries (RGB) (video & film) (pp. 296-7)

· Subtractive Primaries (CYM) (printing) (pp. 296-7)

· Color Temperature: Kelvin Scale (pp. 298-300)

· Emotionally:

-  Warm light source [3200° K tungsten]

-  Cold light source [5600° K daylight]

· Conversion Filters (pp. 389-90)

-  #85 (orange) converts Tungsten for Daylight

-  #80 (blue) converts Daylight for Tungsten

· Matte Box / Lens Hood (pp. 243-5)

· Special Filters (pp. 239-45)

-  UV/1A (ultraviolet)

-  Neutral Density (less light: neutral color)

-  Grads (half color/half clear)

-  Polarizing (reduces reflections glass/water)

-  Diffusion (dreamy, soft)

-  Low Contrast (ProMist)

-  Fog/ Star

· Software filters (plug-in)

 

 

There will be a total of 50 questions in the format of Multiple Choice and True/False. Also there will be extra credit questions on the videos that have been shown in class.

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